Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 

Streptozotocin (STZ) selectively targets and kills pancreatic beta cells so it is widely used as an agent to induce Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM).  STZ models of T1DM are used for assessing mechanisms, screening treatments, and evaluating therapeutic approaches directed at diabetic complications.

Implantable telemetry provides insights into the onset of this disease at a level not previously available as can be seen in the below plot showing the average and standard error measures across 11 rats.  Following dosing, as indicated by the arrow and STZ abbreviation, blood glucose values increase as the beta cells are shocked and stop producing insulin, then blood glucose drops as the beta cells die and release all of their insulin, and then over the next day blood glucose increases due to the fact that significantly less insulin is being produced and the animal then achieves a new hyperglycemic homeostasis.

STZ Induction

After induction the use of implantable telemetry will similarly provide enhanced insights into effectiveness of managing diabetes through insulin treatments, comparisons of different drugs, and more.
Induction of Type 1 diabetes is accomplished by weighing the animal and then dosing with STZ sufficient to terminate most insulin production.  This is typically in the range of 35mg/kg IV or 55mg/kg IP.

Implantable telemetry will improve T1DM research by providing continuous data with improved resolution in amplitude and time-based parameters.  Below are a few examples of how this data could be used:

  • In working towards a cure which involves the implantation of encapsulated beta cells the HD-XG could be used to determine subtle differences in the performance of these implanted cells and/or their encapsulation.
  • In working towards management of the disease intended to minimize complications such as blindness the HD-XG could be used to evaluate different levels of hyperglycemic variability to determine the specific levels that are critical to maintain.  Such guidance would prove useful in the programming of artificial pancreas.
  • In working towards management of the disease through the development of new insulin products the HD-XG could be used to better understand dose-response relationships and also to assess daily glycemic variability as opposed to average glucose levels.
  • In working towards prevention of the disease by development of therapeutic interventions which preserve residual beta cell functionality the HD-XG could be used to assess efficacy of such solutions.
System Components (implantable telemetry applications)
  1. Computer with Ponemah or Dataquest A.R.T. software
    • Automates data collection (continuous or scheduled)
    • Facilitates collection of calibration values
    • Facilitates calibration and reporting of data
  2. MX2 or Data Exchange Matrix and power supply
    • Provides power to receivers
    • Centralizes data collection to computer
  3. Telemetry receivers (typically RPC-1 or RSC-1)
    • Receives telemetry signal and sends to DEM/Computer
  4. HD-XG telemetry devices
    • Records glucose, temperature, and activity for 28 days or longer
  5. Nova StatStrip Xpress handheld glucometer and strips
    • Provides reference glucose values for calibrating implantable devices
Rather than providing publications related to specific T1DM research please see the below as an example of guidance toward T1DM research.  

Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation - Research Page