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Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 

Approximately 90% of diabetics have type 2 diabetes1,2,3.  Thus there is great interest in various animal models of type 2 diabetes.  Available models express various characteristics of diabetes including insulin resistance, reduced insulin production, leptin resistance, etc.

The example below shows data from 6 fa/fa rats.  The lean group of 3 rats were fed standard diet and the diabetic group of 3 rats were fed a high fat diet beginning two weeks prior to implantation.  This data illustrates both the surgical recovery of the rats and the progressive onset of T2DM.

Type 2 Diabetes Progression


1. Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetes Care January 2014 37:S81-S90; doi:10.2337/dc14-S081
2. National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse (NDIC): A service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), National Institutes of Health (NIH).  http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/overview/ (last updated Feb 5, 2014)

3. Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part 1: Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1999 (WHO/NCD/NCS/99.2).

T2DM research is very diverse and no one test methodology is prevalent.  Throughout T2DM research glucose measures may be taken in challenge tests, clamp studies, daily readings, and stimulus-response testing.

The HD-XG continuous glucose telemetry implant may be used by T2DM researchers to provide continuous and chronic glucose data throughout their studies.  In acute studies like a GTT this may lead to incremental sensitivity and insights for comparing groups of animals.  In chronic studies this may allow for new insights into hyperglycemic variability at a level not previously possible.

We encourage you to hypothesize as to the value a continuous measure of glucose could provide for your studies.

System Components (implantable telemetry applications)
  1. Computer with Ponemah or Dataquest A.R.T. software
    • Automates data collection (continuous or scheduled)
    • Facilitates collection of calibration values
    • Facilitates calibration and reporting of data
  2. MX2 or Data Exchange Matrix and power supply
    • Provides power to receivers
    • Centralizes data collection to computer
  3. Telemetry receivers (typically RPC-1 or RSC-1)
    • Receives telemetry signal and sends to DEM/Computer
  4. HD-XG telemetry devices
    • Records glucose, temperature, and activity for 28 days or longer
  5. Nova StatStrip Xpress handheld glucometer and strips
    • Provides reference glucose values for calibrating implantable devices
Rather than providing publications related to specific T2DM research please see the below as two examples of guidance toward T2DM research itself.  The first is very detailed and specific about the types of research that are recommended.  The second is suggesting a bold alternative to the way in which research is supported.

From the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) a division of the National Institutes of Health (NIH):  Advances & Emerging Opportunities in Diabetes Research: A Strategic Planning Report of the Diabetes Mellitus Interagency Coordinating Committee (2011)

The American Diabetes Association's (ADA) Pathway to Stop Diabetes Program